Compression, Binding and Disintegrating Agents
The solid oral form is still the most common form in today’s pharmaceutical industry, due to its many benefits.
When manufacturing solid products designed for oral administration, certain aspects must be considered:
- the direct compression or capsule-filling process requires excellent flow and good compressibility of the mix;
- the finished products must be chemically and physically robust and stable enough over time;
- the finished products must be capable of releasing the active ingredient once ingested.
Compression is the cold compaction of the various components of the tablet. The role of the binding agent is to bring cohesion to the mix of powders and thus produce tablets with acceptable hardness and friability.
The binding excipient can be used dry for direct compression processes, or in aqueous medium for wet granulation processes.
Binding agents that can be used in direct compression have very high cohesive properties. Binding agents that can be used in wet granulation are soluble in water. They are used to wet the mix of powders which is then granulated.
Low-viscosity Hypromellose (HPMC), HydroxyPropyl Cellulose (HPC), certain grades of microcrystalline cellulose and even pregelatinized corn starch are among the most widely used binding agents.
Disintegrating agents accelerate the swelling or disintegration of a tablet once it comes into contact with a fluid.
Disintegrating agents can be added before or after the wet granulation stage. If the disintegrating agent is added before granulation (intragranular phase), the particles will be finer. If the disintegrating agent is added after granulation (extragranular phase), this improves disaggregation. The excipient can also be added in both phases.
Low-substituted HydroxyPropyl Cellulose (HPC) and even pregelatinized corn starch are among the most widely used disintegrating agents.
In addition to the binding and disintegrating agents already mentioned, SEPPIC markets compression agents. These agents are used in the tablet’s composition and can have a variety of functions, including bulking agents, powder solubilizers, sweeteners, mixes for orally disintegrating tablets, stabilizers, etc.